The debate regarding state preemption for Tier 2 Regulation A+ offerings appears to continue. Late last week, a group of Congressmen sent a letter to SEC Chair White reaffirming their view that the SEC has authority to define the term “qualified purchaser” in the context of state preemption and reiterating that the approach taken by the SEC in its proposed rules implementing Title IV of the JOBS Act is consistent with Congressional intent. Here is the text of this most recent letter: Congress’ Letter to SEC Chair White (from a posting by BIO, the life sciences industry organization, which has been a supporter of Regulation A+).
Crowdnetic, a provider of technology and market data solutions to the global crowdfinance marketplace, has shared with us for publication data collected through their network of intermediaries.
Crowdnetic tracks, among other things, data regarding private issuers raising capital (referred to as “PIPRs”) in Rule 506(c) offerings. In the one-year period since the effective date of the new rules (September 23, 2013 to 2014), Crowdnetic reports that there have been 942 successful PIPRs completed through the CrowdWatch platforms. Of these, the vast majority involve offerings of equity (534 offerings) and offerings of convertible debt securities (318 offerings). There are quite a number of industries represented. When considered based on the number of offerings, the leading industry sectors are social media, e-commerce and app software. When considered based on offering proceeds, the leading industry is oil and gas.
The below charts provide data from Crowdnetic.
Today, September 23rd, is the one year anniversary of the effective date of the changes relaxing the prohibition against general solicitation in certain offerings made under Rule 506 and resales made pursuant to Rule 144A.
The SEC has not moved forward with the rules it proposed in 2013 that would make certain changes to Regulation D, Form D and Rule 156. The proposed rules seem every bit as controversial now as they were when first published. Today, Senators Levin, Reed, Markey, Warren published a letter that they sent to SEC Chair White (see here: http://www.levin.senate.gov/newsroom/press/release/levin-reed-markey-warren-urge-sec-to-protect-investors/?section=alltypes) urging adoption of “investor protections” in private offerings. Specifically, the Senators urge that the SEC adopt rules requiring the filing of general solicitation materials and the inclusion of certain risk disclosures in any general solicitation materials. The Senators also urge the SEC to require issuers to file a Form D prior to engaging in any general solicitation. Just days ago, we reported (in a post re-published from a Milken Institute blog), on Commissioner Gallagher’s call (see Gallagher’s full remarks here: http://www.sec.gov/News/Speech/Detail/Speech/1370542976550#.VCHw1aXD-nA) for the SEC to withdraw the Regulation D proposed rules.
If investor protection advocates are concerned about the lack of oversight that may accompany a generally solicited offering made pursuant to Rule 506(c), one would assume that they would support the proposed rules providing for Tier 2 Regulation A+ offerings. Tier 2 Regulation A+ offerings would permit issuers to raise up to $50 million in offerings that can use general solicitation but provide for robust oversight given the need to produce and have the SEC review an offering statement.
Might all the concern be premature? The market has not rushed to adopt general solicitation during this past year. The number of Rule 506 offerings made in reliance on 506(c) remains low. Even though matchmaking portals have begun to make a real impact in private financings, the majority of the offerings completed in reliance on funding portals rely on Rule 506(b) to offer to accredited investors. Many have speculated that the fact that the CFTC had not provided clarity regarding the ability of certain funds to use general solicitation affected adoption of Rule 506(c). Now that some limited guidance and no-action letter relief is available (as we blogged about earlier), perhaps we will see some change….
On September 24, 2014, join Partners Hillel Cohn and Jay Baris at 12:00 pm for an hour long briefing on Broker-Dealer Issues for Private Equity Funds and their Advisers. During this teleconference, we will discuss broker-dealer basics: what activity requires registration as a broker-dealer?; solicitation, negotiation, execution; and transaction-based compensation. Also, what are the consequences of violating such registration requirements? We will examine the Ranieri case, Blass speech, and other SEC activity.
This teleconference will also focus on considerations with regard to raising money for private funds, specifically, fund manager exemptions, the requirements of Rule 3a4-1 and the issues raised by having a dedicated sales force, the issues raised by continuous fund-raising, and compensation issues. Also, alternative fund-raising strategies, specifically, our-source fund-raising, form captive broker-dealer, and affiliate “sales-personnel” with a broker-dealer; advisory fees for portfolio company transactions: distinguishing advisory fees from broker-dealer fees. We will also discuss:
- Reverse churning issues;
- BD/IA regulation: what is coming down the road; and
- General solicitation and general advertising in private offerings.
CLE credit for participants is pending.
To register for the event, please email Harrison Lawrence at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The SEC announced that the next meeting of the Investor Advisory Committee will be held on October 9, 2014. The public may submit written comments or statements. The agenda for the meeting includes a discussion of recommendations regarding the definition of “accredited investor.”
We continue to wait for the SEC to issue final crowdfunding regulations— the comment period ended in January. Meanwhile, some states have sensed an opportunity. Section 3(a)(11) of the Securities Act exempts “intrastate” offerings from the Securities Act when the securities sold are part of any issue “offered and sold only” to persons resident within the specified state where the issuer is resident in or incorporated by, and doing business within, such state. SEC Rule 147 provides objective standards for determining eligibility for the exemption under Section 3(a)(11). Securities offered pursuant to Section 3(a)(11) are not considered “restricted securities” under the Securities Act, and neither Section 3(a)(11) nor Rule 147 prohibits “general solicitation” or “general advertising.” The primary concern for an intrastate offering is that it must be structured not to offer the proposed securities to non-residents.
Relying on the Section 3(a)(11) exemption, a number of states have recently implemented their own crowdfunding provisions, additional states are considering it, and a few states have determined not to implement such regulations. Each state that addresses crowdfunding has a maximum investable amount per investor and total offering size. Although crowdfunding is often associated with the offering of securities through use of an Internet portal, only two states—Indiana and Wisconsin—require that such offering be made exclusively through an Internet portal, while the remainder either state that the use of an Internet portal is allowed (but not necessarily required) or remain silent regarding the use of an Internet portal in executing an offering under the exemption. Each state also may require specified acknowledgments from the investor and differing levels of disclosure. At this time, none California, Delaware, Florida, Massachusetts, Nevada or New York has publicly indicated that it is considering intrastate crowdfunding legislation. It is also not clear how having up to 50 different state regimes will necessarily help the crowdfunding industry develop standardized processes that could make crowdfunding easier for startups.
We attach for your use a summary of the current state crowdfunding regulations with links to the statutes or regulation here: http://www.mofo.com/~/media/Files/CapitalMarkets/140919SummaryofCurrentStateCrowdfundingRegulations.pdf
SEC Commissioner Daniel Gallagher urged the commission on Wednesday to fulfill its mandate to promote capital formation. The SEC should institutionalize an enhanced small business focus, Gallagher said in his prepared remarks, because its current small business mandates are “generally treated as afterthoughts on the ‘back end’ of the rulemaking process.”
Gallagher challenged the SEC to enhance its ability to review and update existing regulations that have been on the books for decades. He added: “We almost never consider how heavily the weight of the entire corpus of rules bears down on registrants. Only rarely do we remove any of our rules even after they have long since ceased to serve their purpose or have become obsolete or worse.”
In making his recommendations, Gallagher suggested that the agency create an Office of the Small Business Advocate, modeled after the SEC’s Office of the Investor Advocate. It would report to the commission and “take charge” of the SEC’s Advisory Committee on Small and Emerging Companies and the Government-Business Forum.
The portion of the commissioner’s remarks on regulatory process maps closely to issues we at the Milken Institute Center for Financial Markets (CFM) are exploring through our new FinTech: 21st Century Market and Policy Developments program. We are considering alternative regulatory approaches that would enhance coordination and regulatory agility while allowing regulators to more effectively satisfy their investor protection and capital formation objectives. These models might rely on increased use of pilot programs, aggregation and analysis of data and outcomes, and more frequent iteration in the rule-making process. Already, we are seeing some of these methods deployed through the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s Project Catalyst, as well as the SEC’s implementation of its Tick Size Pilot Plan.
With respect to specific medium-term recommendations for promoting capital formation in private markets, Gallagher suggested:
- Withdrawing additional proposed Regulation D rules tied to Title II of the JOBS Act. The proposal “does more harm than good,” Gallagher said, noting that it would stifle private markets “while achieving no clear offsetting investor protection goals.” See the CFM Comment Letter on Amendments to Regulation D.
- Broadening the blue-sky exemption under Regulation D. The exemption should be broadened to provide greater choice between Rule 504, 505 and 506 offerings, because “99% of the capital raised under Regulation D is pursuant to the Rule 506 exemption” due to the fact that Rule 506 offerings are blue-sky exempt.
- Improving secondary-market liquidity. The creation of additional “facilities” to improve liquidity and innovation in the secondary marketplace, as well as a review of resale rules, would go a long way toward increasing secondary-market activity.
Among his list of recommendations for the public markets, Gallagher included:
- Implementing crowdfunding. Gallagher said crowdfunding should not be treated as a “curiosity,” adding that if the rule is unworkable, the SEC “should be loudly telling Congress that we need a legislative fix.” SeeCFM’s Comment Letter on Regulation Crowdfunding.
- Implementing Regulation A+. Gallagher called responses from state regulatory officials “disappointing,” adding: “I simply do not understand why a federal registration and review regime – tailored for smaller companies but nonetheless comprehensive – that does not divest states of their antifraud enforcement authority, should be viewed as representing a threat to investors.” Gallagher proposed two amendments to Regulation A+: Increase the size of offerings from $50 million to $75 or $100 million, and exempt Reg A+ shares from Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act. See CFM’s Comment Letter on Regulation A+.
- Scaling Disclosure Requirements. Gallagher said the JOBS Act “was a floor… not a ceiling,” and advocated for replacing current scaled disclosure requirements for a “small reporting company” with a two-tier system of scaling for “nanocap” and “microcap” companies. The two-tier scaling structure would provide “significant scaling” for nanocap companies of up to $50 million in capitalization, with more moderate scaling for microcap companies with capitalizations between $50 and $300 million. See How the Feds Can Save the IPO Market.
Daniel Gorfine is the director of financial markets policy and legal counsel in the Washington office of the Milken Institute. He focuses on entrepreneurship, capital access, and financial market issues.
Jackson Mueller is a policy research analyst at the Milken Institute’s Center for Financial Markets. His focus is on capital formation policy and financial markets education initiatives.
This post was originally featured on the Milken Institute’s blog, Currency of Ideas, available at: http://www.milkeninstitute.org/blog/view/660
Join Morrison & Foerster on October 8, 2014 for our Developments in Private Placements seminar, a part of our MoFo Classics Series. During this session we will provide a brief update of Rule 506 and Rule 144A, as amended as a result of the JOBS Act, and discuss the special concerns that issuers, placement agents, existing investors and others may have in connection with private offerings. We will address the CFTC’s relief for funds that seek to use general solicitation, and discuss investor verification, including best practices. We also will discuss how different participants are using accredited investor crowdfunding and matchmaking sites.
Morrison & Foerster is offering participants 1.25 New York CLE credits for attendance.
To register for the event, please email Harrison Lawrence at email@example.com.
The House of Representatives voted 320 to 102 to pass H.R. 5405 (Promoting Job Creation and Reducing Small Business Burdens Act) that contains a number of JOBS Act related measures that previously were the subject of individual bill proposals. For example, the bill addresses the JOBS Act inadvertent failure to address the Exchange Act threshold as to savings and loan holding companies; a pilot tick-size pilot program for emerging growth companies; a grace period for transitioning from EGC status; and an exemption from xBRL requirements for EGCs.
Issuers, placement agents and attorneys have been working with the new Rule 506(d) “bad actor” provisions for almost one year. Our Client Alert summarizes recent SEC guidance in this area, and provides some practical tips on how to identify any bad actors in advance of a Rule 506 offering. We also take a look at the waivers from disqualification that the SEC has granted upon a showing of good cause.